http://equiefahp.inube.com/blog/2521484/crown-capital-eco-management-biomass-as-a-fuel-for-boilers/


Biomass for energy often mean plant base material although can equally apply to both
animal and vegetable draw from material. Biomass is actually a biological material
derive form living or recently living organisms. Biomass chemical composition is carbon
based and is composed of a mixture of organic molecules containing hydrogen, usually
including atoms of oxygen, often nitrogen and also small quantities of other atoms,
including alkali, alkaline earth and heavy metals, metals are often found in functional
molecules such as the porphyrins which include chlorophyll which contains magnesium.
There are five basic categories of material of biomass such as:
•Virgin wood- from forestry, arboriculture activities or from wood processing.
•Energy crops- high yield crops grown specifically for energy applications
•Agricultural residues- residues from agriculture harvesting or processing
• Food waste- from food and drink manufacture, preparation and processing, and
post-consumer waste
•Industrial waste and co-products- from manufacturing and industrial processes.
The question is how are we going to use this biomass as a fuel for boilers? But what is
a boiler in the first place? A boiler is defined as “a closed vessel in which water or other
liquid is heated, steam or vapor is generated, steam is superheated, or any combination
thereof, under pressure or vacuum, for use external to itself, by the direct application of
energy from the combustion of fuels, from electricity or nuclear energy.”
 
 
NIFES Consulting Group commissioned by Calor Gas showed that commercial buildings can reduce carbon emissions by 22 per cent by replacing an old oil boiler with one that uses LPG. This was partly a result of a more efficient system, and partly a result of the emissions factor for fuel oil standing at 0.265 kilograms of CO2 per kWh, higher than that of LPG, which comes in at 0.214 kilograms of CO2 per kWh.
In addition, a separate study published earlier this year in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Impact Assessment Review earlier proved that, in domestic buildings, heating oil generates about 20 per cent more greenhouse gas emissions than LPG.
It is also more energy efficient. The same NIFES study also showed that an oil boiler installed 15 years ago replaced with LPG can cut energy use by 11 per cent.


http://crowncapitalecomanagement.spotlife.se/
 
 
http://forums.ebay.com/db2/topic/Business-Industrial/Crown-Capital-Management/5100123009

While propane is most commonly used for domestic, commercial and industrial heating applications, a shift is now on that could see this Liquefied Petroleum Gas, or LPG, play a bigger role in reducing the energy consumption of buildings.
Propane certainly has a lot of things going for it, especially in remote rural and outback locations unable to be connected to the main electricity grid.

It is also more energy efficient. The same NIFES study also showed that an oil boiler installed 15 years ago replaced with LPG can cut energy use by 11 per cent.
From a supply and performance perspective, LPG has also been demonstrated to be more reliable. One volume of liquid LPG will yield about 270 volumes of vapour. This enables high volumes to be stored on-site as liquid in pressurised containers. Also, because LPG is stored under pressure, it is difficult to illegally siphon off – a growing problem for oil storage tanks.
It boils at -42ºC at atmospheric pressure, which means that its performance is not affected by cold weather. This means it can provide a constant supply of gas throughout the year whatever the temperature.

Though highly flammable, it still has good safety credentials, at least from a pollution perspective.
Safety LPG is non-toxic and a leak of LPG vapour is unlikely to pose any significant ground or water pollution hazard. As a liquid, it is lighter than water so has the environmental benefit of always remaining above the water level. Any LPG spillages simply vaporise and do not cause soil or water contamination.
 
 
http://www.trade2win.com/boards/site-news-feedback/162810-crown-capital-management-benefits-propane-energy-alternative.html#post2028368

While propane is most commonly used for domestic, commercial and industrial heating applications, a shift is now on that could see this Liquefied Petroleum Gas, or LPG, play a bigger role in reducing the energy consumption of buildings.
Propane certainly has a lot of things going for it, especially in remote rural and outback locations unable to be connected to the main electricity grid.

It is also more energy efficient. The same NIFES study also showed that an oil boiler installed 15 years ago replaced with LPG can cut energy use by 11 per cent.
From a supply and performance perspective, LPG has also been demonstrated to be more reliable. One volume of liquid LPG will yield about 270 volumes of vapour. This enables high volumes to be stored on-site as liquid in pressurised containers. Also, because LPG is stored under pressure, it is difficult to illegally siphon off – a growing problem for oil storage tanks.
It boils at -42ºC at atmospheric pressure, which means that its performance is not affected by cold weather. This means it can provide a constant supply of gas throughout the year whatever the temperature.

Though highly flammable, it still has good safety credentials, at least from a pollution perspective.
Safety LPG is non-toxic and a leak of LPG vapour is unlikely to pose any significant ground or water pollution hazard. As a liquid, it is lighter than water so has the environmental benefit of always remaining above the water level. Any LPG spillages simply vaporise and do not cause soil or water contamination.



 
 
http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xvme3s_crown-capital-management-benefits-of-propane-low-energy-alternative_news#.UL7wheR196_

While propane is most commonly used for domestic, commercial and industrial heating applications, a shift is now on that could see this Liquefied Petroleum Gas, or LPG, play a bigger role in reducing the energy consumption of buildings.
Propane certainly has a lot of things going for it, especially in remote rural and outback locations unable to be connected to the main electricity grid.
 It boasts strong environmental credentials. According to the BRE in the UK, LPG is the lowest carbon-intensive fuel available in gas-main-free areas.
Furthermore, a recent study by energy consultant NIFES Consulting Group commissioned by Calor Gas showed that commercial buildings can reduce carbon emissions by 22 per cent by replacing an old oil boiler with one that uses LPG. This was partly a result of a more efficient system, and partly a result of the emissions factor for fuel oil standing at 0.265 kilograms of CO2 per kWh, higher than that of LPG, which comes in at 0.214 kilograms of CO2 per kWh.
In addition, a separate study published earlier this year in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Impact Assessment Review earlier proved that, in domestic buildings, heating oil generates about 20 per cent more greenhouse gas emissions than LPG.
It is also more energy efficient. The same NIFES study also showed that an oil boiler installed 15 years ago replaced with LPG can cut energy use by 11 per cent.
From a supply and performance perspective, LPG has also been demonstrated to be more reliable. One volume of liquid LPG will yield about 270 volumes of vapour. This enables high volumes to be stored on-site as liquid in pressurised containers. Also, because LPG is stored under pressure, it is difficult to illegally siphon off – a growing problem for oil storage tanks.
It boils at -42ºC at atmospheric pressure, which means that its performance is not affected by cold weather. This means it can provide a constant supply of gas throughout the year whatever the temperature.

Though highly flammable, it still has good safety credentials, at least from a pollution perspective.
Safety LPG is non-toxic and a leak of LPG vapour is unlikely to pose any significant ground or water pollution hazard. As a liquid, it is lighter than water so has the environmental benefit of always remaining above the water level. Any LPG spillages simply vaporise and do not cause soil or water contamination.
Furthermore, LPG suppliers typically own and are therefore responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of the LPG tank installation. This means each time a delivery is made, the tank is checked by the driver and, periodically, the installation is checked by a qualified engineer. Essentially, this means that the tanks are one less thing for the home or business to worry about.
LPG can be integrated with low-carbon and renewable technologies to provide solutions for rural commercial developments and refurbishments, which combine to create a reliable year-round heating supply with further carbon and cost savings; an increasingly attractive option, especially given the potential effects of the Carbon Tax.

Renewable and low-carbon technologies that can be used with LPG include condensing boilers, solar and photovoltaic installations, gas absorption heat pumps (GAHP) and combined heat and power systems (CHP).
A modern condensing LPG boiler will lower fuel consumption as much as 30 per cent by reusing the energy that would typically be lost through the flue. Condensing LPG boilers are suitable for most commercial premises.
The lower greenhouse gas emissions produced by using LPG compared to oil make a condensing LPG boiler particularly suitable as a year-round back-up to solar power.
GAHPs are low-carbon solutions for heating and hot water which can use LPG as a clean primary fuel source. They are suitable for outdoor operation, which means there is no need for a plant room, and can achieve extremely high levels of efficiency.
A CHP system is effectively an on-site, stand-alone power plant, which is capable of producing both electricity and heat from a single fuel source. While the generator produces electricity, the heat by-product is captured and used for central heating and hot water. If additional heat is required, a back-up condensing LPG boiler can boost output.
With demand increasing for high-performing energy solutions, the rise of LPG is certainly making a good case as an alternative. For remote locations, it may well be the best solution.

 
 
http://www.greenoptions.com/t/4545/crown-capital-eco-management-what-fossil-fuel-really-do-to-america

The fuels consumed by boilers in large quantities are natural gas, distillate oil, and coal. Additional energy is derived from the burning of waste such as bark, bagasse, liquid hydrocarbon waste materials, etc. These said fuels contribute only a small percent to energy requirements. But they may however present environmental problems. Although problems have not been address due to the fact that these problems are not full understood. New Sources performance Standards for burning boilers waste are to be developed in the near future.

For fossil fuels, various combination of consuming sectors and type of fuel, have independent significant and insignificant environmental consequences. Boilers have three different types, the atertube, firetube and cast iron therefore to determine the overall pollution due to boilers are hard to determine and complicated. In addition each type varies in type and application and other factors influencing the character and quantity of environmental discharges.

Due to the complexity of analyzing the impacts of boiler operation in the United States, U.S Environmental Protection Agency has given rise to a series of studies. These studies pave the way for a better understanding of the impacts of boilers in our environment and the development of ways to control specific pollutants.

Many of the environmental problems our country faces today result from our fossil fuel dependence. These impacts include global warming, air quality deterioration, oil spills, and acid rain.

Air pollution is one major effect of fuels. Several important pollutants are produced by fossil fuel combustion: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and hydrocarbons. In addition, total suspended particulates contribute to air pollution, and nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons can combine in the atmosphere to form tropospheric ozone, the major constituent of smog. This is just one of the effects; there is water and land pollution, and thermal pollution.

Global warming is another thing. Among the gases emitted when fossil fuels are burned, one of the most significant is carbon dioxide, a gas that traps heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Over the last 150 years, burning fossil fuels has resulted in more than a 25 percent increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. Fossil fuels are also implicated in increased levels of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide, although they are not the major source of these gases.

 
 
http://blog.crowncapitalmngt.com/what-fossil-fuel-really-do-to-america/

Fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—are America’s primary source of energy. America’s annual consumption of fossil fuels grown rapidly. 89 % of these consumption are consumed by boilers, transportation, residential usage, fuels for direct heating of process. The balance is used for feed-stocks, raw materials, and other miscellaneous uses. And most of the dirty fuels such as coal and residual oil go into boilers.

Fuel burned are by far the largest single source of air pollution. This pollution is from sulfur oxide. It is also a significant source of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. Boiler combustion is sufficiently important to warrant the effort to analyze the complete nature of the problems.

Fuel consumption in boilers is divided into three sectors: utility boilers producing steam for generation of electricity which is actually consuming probably 59%, industrial boilers producing steam or hot water for process heat,generation of electricity or space heat consuming about 24%, and boilers for space heating for commercial and institutional facilities consuming the 17%.