Princeton film festival explores broad range of environmental issues

Sometimes the best way to educate is to entertain; this has proven true by Princeton
Public Library for the seventh straight year.

Last weekend was the start of the annual Princeton Environmental Film Festival, the
festival features more than 30 films that explore environmental sustainability from a
wide range of perspectives. The film series will run from now through Feb. 10, with 13
days of free films for 2013.

“An Inconvenient Truth” and “Who Killed the Electric Car?” pave the way to the annual
festival. Curator Susan Conlon says the library was inspired to create the film festival
after the overwhelming success of two environmentally themed films.

“The festival is a way to bring these kinds of films to the community; to explore new
ideas and become aware of different perspectives,” Conlon says. “There are often more
than two sides to an issue, and these films really make you expand your thinking.”

It isn’t just the quantity of the film yet the quality as well, Conlon stresses that while
the majority of the films address environmental matters, every film was primarily
selected not just because it addressed a specific issue, but because it was a well-made,
entertaining film.

As diverse as the films may be, Conlon notes that they are all linked by a common
theme. This year’s films explore a wide range of topics and present perspectives from
literally around the world.

NIFES Consulting Group commissioned by Calor Gas showed that commercial buildings can reduce carbon emissions by 22 per cent by replacing an old oil boiler with one that uses LPG. This was partly a result of a more efficient system, and partly a result of the emissions factor for fuel oil standing at 0.265 kilograms of CO2 per kWh, higher than that of LPG, which comes in at 0.214 kilograms of CO2 per kWh.
In addition, a separate study published earlier this year in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Impact Assessment Review earlier proved that, in domestic buildings, heating oil generates about 20 per cent more greenhouse gas emissions than LPG.
It is also more energy efficient. The same NIFES study also showed that an oil boiler installed 15 years ago replaced with LPG can cut energy use by 11 per cent.

The fuels consumed by boilers in large quantities are natural gas, distillate oil, and coal. Additional energy is derived from the burning of waste such as bark, bagasse, liquid hydrocarbon waste materials, etc. These said fuels contribute only a small percent to energy requirements. But they may however present environmental problems. Although problems have not been address due to the fact that these problems are not full understood. New Sources performance Standards for burning boilers waste are to be developed in the near future.

For fossil fuels, various combination of consuming sectors and type of fuel, have independent significant and insignificant environmental consequences. Boilers have three different types, the atertube, firetube and cast iron therefore to determine the overall pollution due to boilers are hard to determine and complicated. In addition each type varies in type and application and other factors influencing the character and quantity of environmental discharges.

Due to the complexity of analyzing the impacts of boiler operation in the United States, U.S Environmental Protection Agency has given rise to a series of studies. These studies pave the way for a better understanding of the impacts of boilers in our environment and the development of ways to control specific pollutants.

Many of the environmental problems our country faces today result from our fossil fuel dependence. These impacts include global warming, air quality deterioration, oil spills, and acid rain.

Air pollution is one major effect of fuels. Several important pollutants are produced by fossil fuel combustion: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and hydrocarbons. In addition, total suspended particulates contribute to air pollution, and nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons can combine in the atmosphere to form tropospheric ozone, the major constituent of smog. This is just one of the effects; there is water and land pollution, and thermal pollution.

Global warming is another thing. Among the gases emitted when fossil fuels are burned, one of the most significant is carbon dioxide, a gas that traps heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Over the last 150 years, burning fossil fuels has resulted in more than a 25 percent increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere. Fossil fuels are also implicated in increased levels of atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide, although they are not the major source of these gases.

Fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—are America’s primary source of energy. America’s annual consumption of fossil fuels grown rapidly. 89 % of these consumption are consumed by boilers, transportation, residential usage, fuels for direct heating of process. The balance is used for feed-stocks, raw materials, and other miscellaneous uses. And most of the dirty fuels such as coal and residual oil go into boilers.

Fuel burned are by far the largest single source of air pollution. This pollution is from sulfur oxide. It is also a significant source of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides. Boiler combustion is sufficiently important to warrant the effort to analyze the complete nature of the problems.

Fuel consumption in boilers is divided into three sectors: utility boilers producing steam for generation of electricity which is actually consuming probably 59%, industrial boilers producing steam or hot water for process heat,generation of electricity or space heat consuming about 24%, and boilers for space heating for commercial and institutional facilities consuming the 17%.